, Telecom Tigers

Tuesday, January 31, 2017

IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6)

Hi All,

   Greeting from TelecomTigers Team,

Today let discuss about IPv6 Protocol Overview,

           As we all know, that currently millions/billions of users are connected via Internet around the world, & there is continuous growth of Internet usage in Future too, which includes connection of various devices like mobiles/smartphone, vehicles, other devices, etc., which requires more n more unique IP's,

but there is certain amount of Unique IP's i.e. 2⌃32 Addresses (4,294,967,296 which is around 4 Billions Addresses) available with current IP Version i.e. IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4 which we normally call as - IP),

So, as the User Devices are Increasing day-by-day, we are running out of these unique IP's, & hence we need some other way & to overcome the issue, before all IP's are Utilized, our researchers came up with IPv6 i.e. Internet Protocol Version 6.

Note :- Its NOT a New Protocol but a New/Modified version of IPv4 (which was having limitation of Unique IP's).

In IPv6, we have Overcome the limitation of Unique IP's by Increasing it Bits Limit from 32 to 128 i.e IPv6 has 2⌃128  Addresses (3.4 x 10⌃38 Addresses), & also making it Hexa-Decimal which overall makes longer address location,

lets see some comparison between IPv6 over IPv4,

Advantage of Using IPv6 Over IPv4,
  • Provides More Addresses w.r.t IPv4.
  • Supporting Growth of Internet.
  • Provides Better Security.
  • Better Handling of IP's for All Devices. 

Comments are most Welcomed,

Telecom Tigers Team

Friday, October 14, 2016

Roaming Call Flow

Hi All,

   Greeting from TelecomTigers Team,

As per request from many of our readers,
Here is a MT Call Flow, When Subscriber is in Roaming,
Following parameters are not taken here for simplicity i.e. Authentication, Ciphering, Paging, etc.

Postpaid Subscriber MT Call Flow :-

  • Mobile (MS A) dials Mobile (MS B) Number (which is of Circle 2 but currently in roaming at Circle 1).
  • "Connect" msg is sent from MS A to MSC A, which analyse B-Number & found it's of different circle, so it route the call to GMSC A.
  • After receiving IAM from GMSC A, GMSC B initiates the SRI request to HLR B.
  • In Normal Scenario, i.e. Postpaid MT call flow, GMSC B will initiate the SRI query to HLR B & HLR B will ask for PRN from MSC B (in which MS B currently present), & MSC B will respond to that query by providing MSRN number to GMSC B via HLR B, but here,
  • Since MS B is in Roaming at Circle 1, so HLR B will ask for PRN from MSC C, via GMSC B & GMSC C.
  • MSC C provides the MSRN to GMSC A via GMSC C & GMSC B
  • After receiving MSRN by GMSC A, MSC A routes the call to MSC C.
  • Now, ISUP msgs (IAM, ACM, ANM, REL, RLC) is sent from MSC A to MSC B, to complete the call.

Comments are most Welcomed,

Telecom Tigers Team

Monday, June 9, 2014

IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem)

Hi All,

    Here is an introduction to upcoming technology, which is set of standards, developed by the wireless standards body 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), for providing IP based multimedia services including IP telephony.

It creates new opportunities for operators who want to deliver attractive, easy-to-use, reliable and profitable multimedia services – including voice, pictures, text and video, or any combination of these – with existing services. 

IMS addresses key issues such as convergence, service creation and delivery, service interconnection and open standards. 

Access-Independent: it is open standardized way to deliver IP-based consumer and enterprise services, enabled by one common core and control, to the fixed, mobile and cable communities. 

When implemented according to agreed standards, IMS enables operators to mix and match equipment and applications from multiple vendors, and enables mobile users to access their personal set of services wherever they roam, whichever operator network they are connected to.

IMS includes the tools and functions needed to handle numerous non-standardized services in a standardized way – ensuring the interoperability, access awareness, policy support, charging, security and quality of service functionality required to meet consumer demand for attractive and convenient offerings.

IMS is not intended to standardize applications, but rather to aid the access of multimedia and voice applications from wireless and wireline terminals. This is done by having a horizontal control layer that isolates the access network from the service layer.

Users Benefits:-

All services, such as voice, video, SMS, conferencing, IPTV etc. will be available on the device being used. This will provide user with rich media experience.
Safe and secure communication.
The users will be able to personalize their communication need, such as preferred medium of communication depending on, who is calling etc.
The use of Internet technologies will allow a seamless communication irrespective of user’s location and the platform of communication

Service Providers Benefits:-

Use of IP backbone by IMS will provide an optimized transport and coding.
IMS provides a common standardized platform with reusable components for development of new services. This will reduce development time and allow roll out of new multimedia services quickly, as per the market requirement.
Quality of service (QoS) has been as issue with IP services. The IMS has been designed keeping in mind quality of service (QoS) requirement, so that the guaranteed bandwidth requirement can be met.
IMS allow flexibility in charging users as per the services utilized by them.
The open standards used by IMS allow inter-networking and interoperability between various service providers. This enables them to provide seamless communication to user irrespective of network he is in and the device he is using.
The open architecture, available common services and converged IP backbone will reduce system complexity, thereby bringing down the CapEx and OpEx for the operators.
The IMS design has been done keeping in mind operators & allows operators to deploy third party developers for developing application without losing the control of their network.

Main Nodes of IMS System:-

        The Call Session Control Function (CSCF) and the Home Subscription Server (HSS) are the essential nodes in the IMS system. 
  • The IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is the control signaling routed by the CSCF. 
  • The HSS provides the user profile database to manage user authentication and authorization for the subscribed services.

More Information will be Updated Soon....

Comments are most Welcomed.

Telecom Tigers Team

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